The architecture of Indonesia reflects the diversity of cultural, historical and geographic influences that have shaped Indonesia as a whole. Invaders, colonizers, missionaries, merchants and traders brought cultural changes that had a profound effect on styles and techniques of construction.
The number of Indonesian vernacular houses have been developed in the archipelago. The traditional homes and settlements of several hundred ethnic groups in Indonesia are extremely diverse and all have their own specific history. The houses have social significance in society and show local ingenuity in their relations with the environment and spatial organization.
Traditionally, the most important foreign influence has been Indian. However, Chinese, Arabic and European influences have also played an important role in the development of Indonesian architecture. Religious architecture ranges from indigenous forms to mosques, temples and churches. The sultans and other sovereigns built palaces. There is an important legacy of colonial architecture in Indonesian cities. Independent Indonesia has seen the development of new paradigms for postmodern and contemporary architecture.
Joglo is a type of traditional vernacular house of the Javanese people (Javanese omah). The word joglo refers to the shape of the roof. In the very hierarchical Javanese culture, the type of roof of a house reflects the social and economic status of the owners of the house; Joglo houses are traditionally associated with Javanese aristocrats.
Joglo toit can be installed in a dwelling (omah) or a pavilion (pendopo).
The joglo roof is the most complex of all types of Javanese roofs. Different with the other type of Javanese roof such as the Limasan roof and Kampung, joglo roof does not use the king posts. Roof joglo consists of columns that become more like going to the center. The four most intimate main columns of the house are often the tallest, while the exterior columns are the lowest. These four most intimate house columns support a roof which is the steepest of all types of Javanese roof; almost form a pyramid, except that it is two points rather than one. These four innermost columns of the main house is surmounted by a unique structural element called tumpang sari. A tumpang sari is basically the structure of layered beams; the outermost band of beams supports the rafters of both the upper and lower roofs, while the inner band of strongly ornamented beams create a vaulted ceiling in the form of an inverted stepped pyramid.
The basic Joglo houses -type can be increased in size, adding additional columns and extending the roof surface to the outside. Some very large joglo roofs, like the roof of the Grand Pendopo of the Mangkunegaran Palace, have a shape reminiscent of a mountain.
Traditionally, the joglo roof is used for the clean house (omah) or the pavilion (pendopo) of noble families. In a large compound house of a noble Javanese family, the joglo roof covers the very center of the house. The space in the middle of the house, known as the Dalem, is considered the most sacred. This sacred space – especially the area under the sari tumpang – is often left empty. In modern times, the region has no specific use, but traditionally an incense has been burned once a week in this area to honor the rice goddess Dewi Sri, or in central Java, to honor Ratu Kidul . This sacred area is also the region where the bride and groom are seated during their wedding ceremony. The joglo roof is an iconic form of Java roof. Roof joglo influenced the development of Dutch colonial architecture in Indonesia. Modern buildings in Indonesia, such as the large hall or airport terminal buildings, sometimes use the joglo roof.
In a structured Javanese and tradition society, the joglo house is traditionally associated with the residence of Javanese aristocrats. The joglo type houses is reserved for Javanese palaces, official residence, government property, and the house of the nobles (ningrat).
There are seven types of joglo construction – Joglo Kepuhan (used for the peringgitan), Taraju Mas, Lambang Gantung or Pangrawit (used for the courtroom of the royal palace), Joglo Wantah, Joglo Ceblokan, Tawon Boni and Semar Tinandu. Joglo buildings are divided into two styles, the male and female; the difference between them is that the male version is larger in size than the female.