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The architecture of Indonesia reflects the diversity of culture, historical and geographical influences that shaped Indonesia as a whole. Invaders, colonizers, missionaries, merchants and traders brought cultural changes that had a profound effect on styles and construction techniques.
The number of Indonesian vernacular houses have been developed in the archipelago. The traditional houses and settlements of several hundred ethnic groups in Indonesia are extremely varied and all have their own specific history. Houses have a social meaning in society and show local ingenuity in their relationships to the environment and spatial organization.
Traditionally, the most important foreign influence has been Indian. However, Chinese, Arabic and European influences have also played an important role in shaping Indonesian architecture. Religious architecture ranges from indigenous forms to mosques, temples and churches. Sultans and other rulers built palaces. There is an important legacy of colonial architecture in Indonesian cities. Independent Indonesia has seen the development of new paradigms for post – modern and contemporary architecture.
Joglo is a type of traditional vernacular house of the Javanese people (Javanese omah). The word joglo refers to the shape of the roof. In the highly hierarchical Javanese culture, the type of roof of a house reflects the social and economic status of the owners of the house; Joglo houses is traditionally associated with Javanese aristocrats.
Joglo roof can be implemented in housing (omah) or pavilion (pendopo).
The Joglo roof is the most complex of all Javanese roof types. Different with the other type of Javanese roof such as the roof limasan and Kampung, roof joglo do not use the messages of king. Roof joglo consists of columns that become more like going to the center. The four main columns of the most intimate house are often the highest, while the outer columns are the lowest. These four most intimate house columns support a roof that is the stiffest of all Javanese roof types; almost form a pyramid, except that it is two points rather than one. These four most internal columns of the main house is surmounted by a unique structural element called tumpang sari. A tumpang sari is basically the structure of layered beams; the outermost strip of bundles supports the rafters of the two upper and lower roofs, while the inner band of heavily decorated beams create a vaulted ceiling in the form of an inverted tiered pyramid.
The basic Joglo houses – type can be expanded in size, adding additional columns and extending the roof surface outwards. Some very large joglo roof, like the roof of the Grand Pendopo of Mangkunegaran Palace, has a shape reminiscent of a mountain.
Traditionally, the joglo roof is used for the clean house (omah) or the pavilion (pendopo) of noble families. In a large compound house of a Javanese noble family, the joglo roof covers the very center part of the house. The space in the middle of the house, known as Dalem, is considered the most sacred. This sacred space – especially the area under the tumpang sari – is often left empty. In modern times, the region has no specific use, but traditionally an incense was burned once a week in this area to honor the goddess Dewi Sri rice, or in central Java, to honor Ratu Kidul . This sacred area is also the region where the bride and groom sit during their wedding ceremony. The joglo roof is an iconic java roof form. Roof joglo influenced the development of Dutch colonial architecture in Indonesia. Modern buildings in Indonesia, such as large buildings in the air terminal or airport, sometimes use the jogloose roof.
In a Javanese structured society and tradition, the joglo house is traditionally associated with the residence of the Javanese aristocrats. Joglo type houses are reserved for Javanese palaces, official residence, government property, and the noble house (ningrat).
There are seven types of joglo construction – Joglo Kepuhan (used for peringgitan), Taraju Mas, Lambang Gantung or Pangrawit (used for the courtroom of the Royal Palace), Joglo Wantah, Joglo Ceblokan, Tawon Boni and Semar Tinandu. Joglo buildings are divided into two styles, the male and female; the difference between them is that the male version is larger in dimension than the female.
The saktí (spiritual force) of a pavilion resides in the bases of the pillars (sendi). On the aesthetic level, the sendí is similar to the pedestal of a statue and highlights the upper part of a pavilion, slender, clear and spacious, above a stylobate looking a bit massive.
Traditionally, pillars are not firmly attached to their sendi, so they can swing and even lift slightly in the event of earthquakes. the lower end of the pillar is embedded in the stump so that the pillar can not get out of its base. The noon is often carved in blocks of soft stone pmm. the Balinese can not resist the pleasure of carving them. In the temples, these sculptures often represent winged lions.

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